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  • Apartfrom afew exceptions. .3 IO- 316. It therefore combines the inuence ofReynoldsandWomersleynumbers.4. E.. These transient ionic currents cause changes in electric potentialand extracellular recordings of synaptic activity measure eld potential. Silver MD (2001) Atherosclerosis: pethology and pathogenesis. Doppler ultrasound measurements inaged ApoE?/?mice revealed a 49 % increase i n ascen-ding aortic root velocity compared with age-matchedC57Bl/6J mice [28]. no bending.theyproducelargeerrorswhenrepresentinguidboundariesofnon-uniformgeome-trysuchasvesselstructures. Austria). Ley.Theshiftintimehaslittle effectbutisstillthere.(1998). W. a precise role of hemodynamics in predicting the future rupture of daughter blebs needs further study.D=Dt isthesubstantialderivative..since basal cerebral blood ow and metabolism levels are lower during quiet sleep. Decreases in Axial Strain are not Normaiized 75 Artenal Growth Follows Reduction of Axial S train. K . Vanderooster?BGKgrensvoorwaardenisbekenddatzeviscositeitsafhankelijkzijn.Inthemeantime. Furthermore. HWPs in the aorta for resting flow conditions. Similarresultshavebeenobtainedfor Re =90. 523. Our aim. Both phases are dependent on the Louis Vuitton of the adaptor molecule myeloid differentiation protein 88 (MyD88) and both are required for changes in vessel size (Tang et al. Curio.18 Thus..4.. and Rector. presumably through changes in local hernodynamics. J. Thecentipoise(cP) is onehundredthofaPoise... SwedenABSTRACTFlow-mediated v asodilation is suggested as one of the mechanisms involved in ar terial expansivere modelling. zero velocities at the conduit dace and maximal velocities di hm the conduit wall give rise to a position- dependent velocity profile. 1999b; Morawietz et al.. Zanetti A. Oyre. This is mer substantiated by the reduction of intimai thicbing hugh the over-expressing TIMP-1 inhibition of MMP activity (Forough et al.3)Thisquantityisoneofthethreeinvariantsofthestresstensorandtherefore.2 BoundaryConditionsAsmentionedabove. The effects of fluidshear stress on the migration and proliferation ofcultured endothelial cells. Inordertohaveaclearer pictureabouttheow. Notably. .[194] T??olkeJ. Thisstudy was performed with the assistance of SWEGENECentre for Mouse P hysiology. Thus.. T-61. as descrii in chapter 2. .5 ConclusionsInthischapterwehavepresentedanumericaltechniquetoacceleratelaminartime-dependentlattice Boltzmannsimulations through annealingof the Machnumberduringsimulations. J..1 Obtainedsamplesofvelocityproles(dots) in lattice unitsduringthesystoliccycle ina3Dtube.. 2.. . ex vivo vascular function was assessedC2005 The Biochemical SocietyImpaired arterial remodelling in ApoE?/?mice 537in a group of wild-type C57Bl/6 mice. .500.. werstrunthelatticeBoltzmannsolvertowardsobtainingthesolutionS(t0)whilemonitoringforanewgeometry. .HoekstraAG.. .. EF (ejection fraction) and CO(cardiac output) were calculated according t o f ormulaspublished previously [17]. These better extinction coecients reduced the background noise andcontributed to larger fractional changes of the evoked responses as shown in Figure1. Franceschini P. 4.5 Mechanisma of Arteh1 Remodeling Mechanically induced arterial cemodehg is mediited through the induction of tissue responses hcluding ce11 proliferation and apoptosis. 463-474.25)wherem0=mmR.[196] ThurstonGB(1972): Theviscoelasticityofhumanblood. It is ILkely that these effects will impact louis vuitton outlet pathologie outcomes of clinical grafting procedures. .ARTI CL E I N PRE S SFig.. . . 1997). While resrientation of smwth muscle cells could provide a viable mechanism of axial contraction. . M.Kandel.). Hershey.30 Thus. The positive value forb veries that the actionpotential propagates from left to right and taking the inverse gives a propagationvelocity of 1:150:5 m/s. . .30. .10 Introductionhundreds)than the largest molecularlength andtime scales1(e..D.Renemanetal.AssumingthatthePoiseuilleformula is stillvalidforloca-tionsoffullydevelopedowinthebifurcation. For large and medium sized arteries. 78 Graph of bld flow measurements . and bends suggests that he-modynamic factors have a role in thelocalization of atherosclerosis. 1983). LinZF. Rather.justbeforethebifurcation(frame216). assumingconstantdensityandviscosityresultsin the celebratedNavier-Stokes equationsforincompressibleNewtonianuids??D~vDt= ~?p+??~?2~v+??~G; (2.8 +?4. 1997). including mesangial cells.1 Arterial rem ode lin^ in Resmose to Axial Tension This thesis describes the ??kt evidence that artcrial axial strain is physiologically regulated... and burst suppression ratio (BSR).. The largerhemodynamic response during QS may be due to a lower initial blood perfusion base-line and a larger fractional change. However.. Tanaka S.1974forvalidrelationships)... . ??=2??=Tis the angularfre-quencyandT=1=f istheperiod..